Ecology

Introduction

The state of Jammu and Kashmir is divided into three geographical regions namely the Jammu Region, Kashmir Valley and the Ladakh Region covering total area of 2,22,236 sq. kms including area under illegal occupation of Pakistan and China


1) Jammu

  • Area: 26293 sq. kms
  • Forest Area: 12066 sq. kms
  • Percentage of forest area to geographical area: 45.89
  • Altitude: 366m above mean sea level
  • Temperature: The Annual mean temperature is 24.5°C with subtropical climate
  • Climate: Jammu region has two different climatic zones depending primarily on altitude. Lower hills & plains bear subtropical climate with hot dry summer lasting from April to July. The summer monsoons coming around middle of July and fading away in early September. This is followed by dry spell from September to November. Winter is mild and temperature seldom touches freezing point. In the high reaches of Chenab valley, the climate is moist temperate, winter are severe and varied quantity of snow is received.

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  • Forest Types:
    • Sub-Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
    • Sub-Tropical Pine Forests

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2) Kashmir

  • Area: 15948 sq. kms
  • Forest Area: 8128 sq. kms
  • Percentage of forest area to geographical area: 50.97
  • Altitude: 1585m above mean sea level
  • Temperature: The Annual mean temperature is 13.3°C comes under temperature climate.
  • Climate: The Kashmir valley with Pir Panchal Mountains on its south and Korakaram on its north receives precipitation in the form of snow due to western disturbances. The winter is severely cold and temperature often goes below 0°C. Spring is pleasantly cold. Summers are warm and dry and autumn is again cool and sometimes wet.

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  • Forest Types:
    • Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests
    • Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests
    • Alpine Forest

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3) Ladakh

  • Area: 59146 sq. kms
  • Forest Area: 36 sq. kms
  • Percentage of forest area to geographical area: 0.06
  • Altitude: 3505m above mean sea level
  • Climate: Ladakh is situated in eastern mountain range of Kashmir. This is one of the highest ranges in the world. It is cold desert receiving very little precipitation. The temperature remains below the freezing point during winter due to its high altitude when people often remain indoors. Drass in Ladakh is the coldest place of the state. It has recorded the temperature of -50°C during winter. During the short period of summer season, the scorching heat of sun often causes sunburns.

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  • Forest Types:
    • Forest in cold arid zone

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Major Water Bodies of J&K

Following are some of the major Water bodies of the State:

Endemic Species of J&K

Rare species of Mammals

The rare mammals of the region include the Kashmir stag or Hangul (Cervus elephushanglu), the Musk Deer (Moschus moschiferus), the Tibetan Antelope or Chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), the Tibetan Gazele (Procapra picticaudata), the Serow (Capricornis thar), the markhor (Capra falconeri), the Amon the Wild Yak (Bos mutus), the Tibetan Wild Ass (Equuskiang kiang), the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) and the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos), Ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to name a few.

Rare species of Birds

Some of the rare and threatened birds found in the area include exotic species like the Himalayan Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), the Monal Pheasant (Lophopherus impejanus), the Koklas (Pucrasiamacrolopha), the Western Tragopan (Trogopanmalanocephalus), the Black necked Crane (Grusnigricollis), the himalayan Snow Cock (Tetrogallushimalayensis.) and the Bar-Headed Goose (Anserindicus).

Migratory Water Birds

Migratory Water birds include Duck, Geese and Swans. The most common water birds, which visit the State during winter months are Mallard (Anasplatyrhynchos), Common Teal (Anascrecca), Pintail (Anosacuta), Red Crested Pochard (Nettarufina), Greylag Goose (Anser), Wigeon (Anaspenelope), Shoveler (A. clypeata), Garganay (A. guerguedula), Coot (Fulicaatra) and Gadwal (Anasctripera).



(Data Source: Digest of Statistics 2011-12, Annual Administration Report, Forest Dept 2010-11 & SoER 2012-13)

 

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